The capacity to record and modify brain activity through implantable and nonimplantable neural devices, though promising for scientific and clinical advancements, also sparks intricate ethical dilemmas. In this Perspective, we emphasize the potential of artificial intelligence algorithms and data-aggregation tools to decipher and assess highly sensitive information, posing a threat to individual neuroprivacy.
Existing regulatory frameworks, in reality, permit unrestricted interpretation and commercialization of neurodata. We endorse the adoption of proposed ethical and human rights guidelines, in conjunction with technical measures like data encryption, differential privacy, and federated learning, to guarantee the safeguarding of neurodata privacy. Additionally, we urge regulatory authorities to designate all data derived from the brain as sensitive health data and subject all information collected via pre-registered neural devices to existing medical regulations. Lastly, we propose the introduction of a technocratic oath that can instill a code of ethics for neurotechnology practitioners, analogous to the role of the Hippocratic oath in the field of medicine. A conscientious societal stance firmly rejecting the misuse of neurodata would serve as the moral compass guiding the future development of the neurotechnology domain.